Introduction to Risk Management for Wholesale Electricity Markets

Introduction to Risk Management for Wholesale Electricity Markets

December 14-15, 2021 | Online :: Central Time


“This course provided an excellent and detailed introduction to risk mitigation and avoidance strategies in the power industry.” –Development Manager, PCI

“Great training! The instructors were very knowledgeable and able to communicate to a variety of backgrounds of attendees! Very impressed.” –Lead Accountant, TEP

Electricity markets differ from other commodity markets because electricity in the AC (alternating current) form cannot be stored and must be produced and used instantaneously. Price volatility in wholesale electricity markets tend to remain high due to interaction of supply and demand of electricity, weather patterns, as well as correlation trends with natural gas-fired pickers, which tend to set real-time spot market prices under peak load conditions.  Also, the fast-changing landscape in the arena of fuel-mix due to ever increasing penetration of renewables (such as wind and solar) in the wholesale electricity markets puts a lot of pressure on conventional based-load fossil-fired and nuclear plants. As a result, trading and hedging becomes more important as part of risk management. As such, this market structure is much more complex than traditional trading markets, requiring good background knowledge of uniqueness of electricity, how RTOs/ISOs offer energy market platforms for real-time and day-ahead markets, elements of trading, and tools for risk management for beginners.  

This course will provide a comprehensive set of introductory information about basics of power systems, RTOs/ISOs, and electricity trading and hedging for professionals working at power, financial, and energy companies. 

Learning Outcomes

  • Review the basics of electric power system; types of electricity and their characteristics, terminology, and measurement units
  • Identify regional transmission organizations (RTOs) / Independent system operators (ISOs)
  • Identify types of markets offered by RTOs/ISOs
  • Review the types of resources and their role in energy markets
  • Identify key players in energy markets
  • Discuss locational marginal pricing (LMP) and its characteristics
  • Review transmission congestion and hedging
  • Review the regulatory oversight of RTOs/ISOs and anti-manipulation authority of FERC 
  • Discuss the basics of power marketing, trading, and hedging
  • Discuss an introduction to developing commodity price risk hedging strategies
  • Review the fundamentals of risk oversight
  • Review an overview of common financial instruments 
  • Discuss real time vs. forward markets
  • Discuss typical energy market participants and their risk profiles and implications on risk oversight
  • Assess the lifecycle of energy transactions from inception through accounting and settlement
  • Discuss the basics of energy commodity regulatory requirements


Tuesday, December 14, 2021 – Central time

8:45 – 9:00 a.m.
Log In and Welcome

12:30 – 1:15 p.m.
Lunch Break

9:00 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.
Course Timing


Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) and Independent System Operators (ISOs)  

  • RTOs/ISOs in U.S. and Canada 
  • RTO functions and characteristics
  • RTO drivers
  • RTO stakeholders

Regulatory Oversight 

  • Role of FERC, State regulatory agencies, and market monitor
  • FERC’s anti-market manipulation authority

Overview of Power Systems 

  • Fundamentals of electricity, terms/definitions, and units
  • Characteristics of electricity as it applies to energy markets
  • Overview of source to socket power system components – generation, transmission, distribution, and loads
  • Types of generation resource
  • Demand response and energy efficiency participation in energy markets
  • High level explanation of power system losses as it applies to energy markets

Wholesale Energy Markets 

  • Wholesale electricity price volatility 
  • Types of energy markets
    • Physical vs. financial
    • Forward vs. real time
  • Locational marginal prices as market price
  • Components of LMP – cost of energy, losses and transmission congestion, and examples 
  • Nodal, Hub, and Zonal LMPs in RTOs
  • Cost of transmission congestion and example
  • FTRs for transmission congestion hedging and example
  • FTR market offered by RTOs

Front Office: Basics of Energy Trading and Hedging 

  • Overview of the energy transacting lifecycle, focus on front office roles, and responsibilities
  • Introduction to physical vs. financial markets and transactions
  • Overview of energy market participants and risk profiles; implications on risk governance and oversight requirements
    • Price taker
    • Asset optimizer
    • Proprietary trader
  • Hedging vs. trading
  • Market participants
  • Price volatility, counterparties, and contracts
  • Real time vs. forward markets and forward price curves
  • Overview of common financial hedging instruments 
    • Futures contracts
    • Swaps contracts
    • Options (calls and puts)
    • Case study: executing different instruments under different market conditions
    • Exchange, over-the-counter, and bilateral transactions

Middle Office: Basics of Risk Oversight, Measurement, and Monitoring 

  • Revisit the energy commodity transacting lifecycle
  • Middle office roles and responsibilities
  • Fundamentals of energy commodity risk oversight
    • Governance
    • Organization and segregation of duties
    • Policies and controls
    • Risk reporting and monitoring
  • Market risk
    • Price
    • Volatility
    • Correlation
  • Credit risk
    • Current exposure
    • Collateral and collateral-at-risk
    • Liquidity planning
    • Margin: initial, maintenance, and variation
    • Case Study: potential future exposure
  • Limits: position limits, transaction limits, and risk limits
  • Measuring and reporting risk exposures
    • Different risk simulation techniques (historical, parametric, and Monte Carlo)
    • Advanced “at-risk” metrics
    • Pros and cons of different risk metrics
    • Case Study: applying different risk quantification techniques
    • Key inputs in determining the most appropriate risk metric for your organization

Wednesday, December 15, 2021 : Central Time

8:45 – 9:00 a.m.
Log In

9:00 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.
Course Timing

Review of Previous Day Topics; Opportunities for Questions and Discussion on Previous Day’s Material 

Hedge Program Design 

  • Hedging tactics vs. hedging strategy
  • A roadmap to implementing an effective hedging strategy
  • Understanding and quantifying your risk profile and risk appetite
  • Case Study: understanding the revenue-at-risk of different wind projects
  • Defining hedge strategy objectives and linkage to performance objectives
  • Building hedge strategy alternatives – different types of hedge decisions
    • Programmatic (dollar cost averaging) hedges
    • Defensive (risk limits) hedges
    • Contingent (managing foregone opportunities)hedges
  • Hedge strategy design and scenario analysis
  • Case Study: an iterative approach to evaluating the effectiveness of a hedge strategy
  • Implementing a hedge strategy
    • Tactical planning
    • Ongoing monitoring and reporting
    • Case study: the execution of a hedge strategy under different market conditions

Overview of Enabling Technology 

  • Elements of a risk management program
  • Pitfalls many organizations face
  • Information and communication
  • Benefits of seeing around the corner
  • Key takeaways
  • Demonstration: how to bring it all together


Raj Rana, PE, MBA, CEM, PMP, Consultant

At present, Mr. Rana provides consulting services in the electric utility industry in the areas of NERC compliance, energy markets, power system planning and operation, resources integrations, and project management. 

Previously, while serving as Director – RTO Policy and NERC Compliance at American Electrical Power, Mr. Rana was responsible for coordination of energy, transmission, market structure, finance, and governance-related RTO policy issues among the AEP business units, development of corporate positions/policies, and advocacy of such positions at regulatory agencies as well as at stakeholder forums in PJM, SPP, and ERCOT RTOs. He was also responsible for the development and coordination of strategic direction of AEP’s power system reliability compliance program among all business units as well as coordination and facilitation of compliance plans, policies, and procedures within the company to ensure timely and successful compliance of NERC and regional reliability standards. 

Mr. Rana also worked in AEP’s System Planning department in various positions. His experience at AEP includes planning and operation of the bulk transmission network, generation interconnections, tariff and regulatory/legislative issues, system integration, asset management, mergers and acquisitions, as well as planning and engineering studies for international transmission and generation projects. 

Mr. Rana holds a BSEE degree from M. S. University (India), an MSEE degree from West Virginia University, and an MBA degree from University of Dayton. Mr. Rana also completed the AEP Management Development Program at the Fisher Business College of the Ohio State University. He is a life-senior member of IEEE and holds Ohio State PE license. Mr. Rana is also a certified energy manager and a project management professional. 

Scott Wrigglesworth, Managing Director, Operations & Strategy, Ascend Analytics

Scott Wrigglesworth is the Managing Director of Analytics and Strategy with Ascend Analytics. Before joining the company, he spent 17 years with Dayton Power and Light and the AES Corporation. There he focused on practical solutions in energy analytics, actionable reporting, margin modeling and portfolio optimization. In that role, Mr. Wrigglesworth provided analytic expertise for portfolio optimization, planning, and risk management activities. These activities included merchant generation optimization, fuel procurement, wholesale hedging, retail energy, load auctions, rate case preparation, asset valuation, and commercial budget development. Mr. Wrigglesworth teaches a course in Energy Markets at the University of Dayton from where he also earned his MBA. He holds a BA in Global Economics and International Business from Cedarville University.

Online Delivery

We will be using Microsoft Teams to facilitate your participation in the upcoming event. You do not need to have an existing Teams account in order to participate in the broadcast – the course will play in your browser and you will have the option of using a microphone to speak with the room and ask questions, or type any questions in via the chat window and our on-site representative will relay your question to the instructor.

  • IMPORTANT NOTE: After November 30 you will not be able to join a Teams meeting using Internet Explorer 11. Microsoft recommends downloading and installing the Teams app if possible. You may also use the Edge browser or Chrome.
  • You will receive a meeting invitation will include a link to join the meeting.
  • Separate meeting invitations will be sent for the morning and afternoon sessions of the course.
    • You will need to join the appropriate meeting at the appropriate time.
  • If you are using a microphone, please ensure that it is muted until such time as you need to ask a question.
  • The remote meeting connection will be open approximately 30 minutes before the start of the course. We encourage you to connect as early as possible in case you experience any unforeseen problems.


Please Note: This event is being conducted entirely online. All attendees will connect and attend from their computer, one connection per purchase. For details please see our FAQ

If you are unable to attend at the scheduled date and time, we make recordings available to all registrants for three business days after the event

Event Standard RateAttendees



EUCI is accredited by the International Accreditors for Continuing Education and Training (IACET) and offers IACET CEUs for its learning events that comply with the ANSI/IACET Continuing Education and Training Standard. IACET is recognized internationally as a standard development organization and accrediting body that promotes quality of continuing education and training.

EUCI is authorized by IACET to offer 1.0 CEUs for this event.

Requirements for Successful Completion of Program

Participants must log in each day and be in attendance for the entirety of the course to be eligible for continuing education credit.

Instructional Methods

PowerPoint presentations, along with open and interactive group discussions, will be used during the course.

Upon successful completion of this event, program participants interested in receiving CPE credits will receive a certificate of completion.

Course CPE Credits: 11.0
There is no prerequisite for this Course.
Program field of study: Specialized Knowledge
Program Level: Beginner/Intermediate
Delivery Method: Group-Live presented online due to COVID-19
Advanced Preparation: None

CpeEUCI is registered with the National Association of State Boards of Accountancy (NASBA) as a sponsor of continuing professional education on the National Registry of CPE Sponsors. State boards of accountancy have final authority on the acceptance of individual courses for CPE credit.

Who Should Attend 

  • Energy traders new to their jobs or new to nodal markets
  • Power marketers new to their jobs or new to nodal markets
  • Risk managers
  • Accounting professionals
  • Utility administrative and support staff working in energy trading or power marketing
  • Policy and communication professionals
  • Generation/power marketers new to nodal markets
  • ISO/RTO administrative and support staff 

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